Figure 1 shows a 7-layer model of IoT ecosystem. At the bottom layer is the market or application domain, which may be smart grid, connected home, or smart health, etc. The second layer consists of sensors that enable the application. Examples of such sensors are temperature sensors, humidity sensors, electric utility meters, or cameras. The third layer consists of interconnection layer that allows the data generated by sensors to be communicated, usually to a computing facility, data center, or a cloud. There the data is aggregated with other known data sets such as geographical data, population data, or economic data. The combined data is then analyzed using machine learning and data mining techniques. To enable such large distributed applications, we also need the latest application level collaboration and communication software, such as, software defined networking (SDN), services oriented architecture (SOA), etc. Finally, the top layer consists of services that enable the market and may include energy management, health management, education, transportation etc. In addition to these 7 layers that are built on the top of each other, there are security and management applications that are required for each of the layers and are, therefore, shown on the side.
Figure 1: IoT Elements
Figure 1: IoT Ecosystem
In this paper, we concentrate on the interconnection layer. This layer itself can be shown in a multi-layer stack as shown in Figure 2. We have shown only the datalink, network, and transport/session layers. The datalink layer connects two IoT elements which generally could be two sensors or the sensor and the gateway device that connects a set of sensors to the Internet. Often there is a need for multiple sensors to communicate and aggregate information before getting to the Internet. Specialized protocols have been designed for routing among sensors and are part of the routing layer. The session layer protocols enable messaging among various elements of the IoT communication subsystem. A number of security and management protocols have also been developed for IoT as shown in the figure.
Figure 2: IoT Elements